Air will always move from positive pressure to negative pressure to fill void
•    manipulate building form to control where you get positive and negative pressures
•    wind speed lower at ground, gets higher as you go up

• Laminar Flow:

design of profile of buildings becomes important.

Studio Gang
Apartments in Chicago
•    Undulations in balconies direct winds
•    Similar to eroded rock formations
•    Wind exerts less force on building

•    wind tends to create negative pressure at midpoint of facades- need to work at corners and edges

Bio-climate towers, wind energizers
•    Rethinking the form of the tall building
•    Creating canyons for wind turbines

Ken Yeang
o    spiraling air circulation and path

The WSG building by Sauerbruch & Hutton Architects in Berlin uses its colorful facade to regulate ventilation. The facade of the building creates a thermal buffer zone between interior and exterior that is manipulable by inhabitants. The colored louvers can be rotated to allow more or less ventilation while windows and vents on the opposite side weave together to create more operable ventilation. The wing/canopy atop the building lowers pressure between the building and the canopy, accelerating wind in that space to clear heat out of the building that is drawn upward by the stack effect.

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Vivanta Hotel blends into the landscape

The Vivanta Hotel in Bangalore embraces the local culture and climate and adopts a site-specific landscape strategy. The building embodies a “landscraper”, as opposed to “skyscraper” concept. The building twists in a mobius strip alluding to traditional Indian dance forms.

The interior and exterior material palettes were kept sensitive to local conditions of supply and procurement to avoid the carbon expenditure of importing materials from outside South India.  The facade of the building was developed from a digitized image of the site’s original landscape prior to development. From a distance, the building merges with the building and sky.

The hotel rooms are housed in the pixelated greenscape. The landscaped ground plane becomes a green roof, which adds thermal resistance value and collects rainwater to be used in irrigation in the surrounding landscape. The interior of the building  blends outdoors and indoors, creating a seamless transition.


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Heating & Radiant Conductors

“Architecture can be understood as a material organization that regulates and brings order to energy flows; and, simultaneously and inseparably, as an energetic organization that stabilizes and maintains material forms…construction and combustion, are inextricably linked in the history of habitation…Energy brings architecture into the world of processes and life.”
-Luis Fernandez-Galiano

•    when we construct shelter, we use energy to create a new geometry that will cater to our needs.
•    We use active combustion to modify our environment
•    Heat source modifies temp and humidity, distribution system, storage system(changes in input affect changes in storage system & vice versa)
History of heating:
•    Fires in center of structure- smoke exhausted at roof
•    Fires moved into fireplaces (medieval) become ceremonial, decorative pieces in architecture

•    Rumford changed geometry of flu (shallower, wider, more vertical) to catch more radiant heat & throw more heat into the room.

Water is a very efficient radiant conductor in a small volume.
Air represents the other extreme

Water as a radiant conductor:
•    Compact
•    Good for radiant floor heating
•    Combined with domestic hot water system
o    can only heat for the most part
o    no ventilation
o    no humidity control
o    no filtering of air
o    leaks
o    slightly bulky in areas where water is being heated
o    slow to respond to temperature changes
air as a radiant conductor:
•    ventilation, cooling, humidity control, filtering
•    prevents uneven temp by mixing air
•    quick response to changes in temp
•    no equipment required in rooms being heated
o    very bulky (ducts)
o    can be noisy
o    difficult to use in renovation
o    cold floors if air outlets are high in room

*radiators are shaped for max surface area
more effective than electric baseboard heaters

standard strategy of supply and return of air to create most even distribution of heat in the room.
Thermos and air handler typically combined in same unit

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Alternatives to HVAC

There are many alternatives to the HVAC system if we consider natural systems of ventilation and sunlight:

“thermal labyrinth”- concrete labyrinth below, air runs through at night and cools/warms depending upon season

Federation Square, Melbourne, Australia
•    Built in bridge condition over old railroad tracks
•    Used depth as “thermal battery”
•    Inhabited areas stay cool, highest reaches heat up, but air escapes through natural convection currents.
•    “double skin” create thermal blanket in winter
o    thermal chimney in summer

“stack effect”:
•    air is drawn upward and out, takes advantage of buoyancy of air
-created by elevator shaft
-revolving door creates a capacity for people to pass through without creating “stack effect” in tall buildings
-fireplace flu

Bernoulli’s principle:
•    Column of moving fluid→ accelerated airflow lowers pressue.

Venturi Effect:
If you narrow the opening, you lower the flow

Buildings learning from Termites
•    Porous walls harness wind that travels through to central chimney
•    Air flowing around mound pulls “stale” air out of internal chimney
•    Internal air current
•    In many climates, all cooling and comfort needs can be taken care of through the building envelope
•    “shower tower” cools building- evaporative cooling towers

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Post-Bay Game Questions

1. According to Meadows, elements, interconnections and a function or purpose are necessary components in systems. Describe the elements, connections and/or functions or purpose in the Chesapeake Bay watershed system. Diagram the system including these elements.

• Players (watermen, land developers, farmers)
• Decisions made
While playing the game, I did not find that another player’s decisions affected the decisions I made. I was largely unaware of decisions being made by other land developers and entirely unaware of decisions made by watermen or farmers. I expected there to be more of a connection between players of different occupations and more interaction, but each character made decisions based on their own financial interests, quality of life, etc. My initial diagrams showed a web of connections between individuals of different occupations, and these connections may still hold true in that everyone’s decisions ultimately affect others. However, when making decisions in the game, and probably in reality, we do not consider how our actions will ultimately affect others. Decisions are made on a more individual basis.
In the Chesapeake Bay watershed system, everyone’s decisions are made based on his or her own individual priorities, so the purpose was, first and foremost, to look after your own self-interest. The larger purpose, and the purpose on which we focused in the Bay Game, is to improve the health of the bay, but economy seems to take precedent.

2. Describe how your diagram and understanding have changed since your first diagram of the Chesapeake Bay watershed system.
As I said, I initially visualized the Chesapeake Bay watershed system as a web of elements and interconnections. I now understand this chain of actions and consequences to be much more direct. At first, I did not consider the individual people to be elements in the system, but rather I modeled the consequences of these individual occupations, such as pollution, erosion, over-fishing, etc and their affect on the bay. The Bay Game crystallized the real causes of these and pared them down to their human agents. My new diagram is much more linear and focused on the root of the Bay’s problems, humans.

3. How do you think delay affects the efforts to improve the health of the Bay?
There is a delay in response to efforts to improve the bay as well as in response to damaging effects. These delays result in loss of confidence in our efforts to improve bay health, because the results are not seen immediately and the strategies are therefore questioned. They also result in a false confidence that conditions are not as bad as some may say because the effects of our harmful practices, such as pollution, do not seem to have an immediately drastic effect.

4. What was your perceived understanding of the goal/s of the game? Did you think the overall goal/s “fit” with your goals as a stakeholder and citizen? Describe how your understanding of the goal/s affected your actions within the game?
I understood the goal of the game to be to act as your “character” (developer, farmer, etc) might act and incorporating what your own priorities might be in that situation. While the game was centered around saving the bay, it was easy to see how one’s own financial problems may become more important than, say, developing sustainably. I think that the overall goals were reasonable- it is reasonable for anyone to keep sustainability in mind- which is why it pained me when I had to make decisions that may not have been best for the bay. Keeping the goals of the game in mind, I tried to be as environmentally friendly as possible, while remembering that it is most likely difficult for the average land developer to be entirely sustainable. I tried to be realistic when developing my land, btu my actions were often curbed by my financial situation. In our specific case, I felt that the purpose of us playing the game was to test it and provide feedback for how the game could be improved and more user-friendly in the future.

We are improving the UVA Bay Game with each iteration and would like your feedback. Please share any thoughts you have on how the game could be better, what you liked, how it could be best used, and any other comments you have.
I think that the Bay Game might require more preparation and prior research on the part of the players in order to make decisions based on their role in the game. I do not think any of us were informed enough to make educated or realistic decisions as a land developer, farmer, or waterman; most decisions were arbitrary shots in the dark, and most of the game (at least in my case) was trial and error. We did not play enough rounds of the game to assess the results of this trial and error and make more educated decisions. I also found the game website confusing. This could have been the website’s layout or the fact that I was not well informed on the different components of land development (I did not know what most of the terms and numbers on charts and graphs meant).

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Diagrams for bus stop

Diagrams for the bike/bus stop that we will be designing. My site is Beta Bridge. So far I have considered the traffic problems (both pedestrian and automobile), and have decided to push the structure out past Beta Bridge on the corner where University Way meets Rugby Road. This will hopefully create more space for and direct pedestrian traffic in that area as well as providing a space for people to leave their bikes and wait for the bus.

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Sustainable Bridge in Korea

A sustainable bridge called the Paik Nam June Media Bridge is currently being planned for Seoul, Korea. This bridge, which crosses the Han River in the center of the city, is meant to be an extension of the city into the river. It has an organic shape and will be covered with panels to generate energy on its own. The bridge will accommodate cars, bicycles and pedestrians, will include a circulated vertical and horizontal garden, and will utilize local resources- river and rain water and natural light and ventilation. The organic skin of the bridge will be a “canvas for media and visual artists all over the world”.

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